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Nea Potidea PDF Print E-mail

N. Potidea was founded afterwards 1922 from refugees of Eastern Thrace. The space however in which was built the small village has a big history that is lost in the prehistoric years.

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At the 7th b.C. century the Corinthians, appreciating rightly the important strategic place of narrow neck of peninsula that is today named Kassandra, built there a powerful colony, Potidea. At the opinion of certain historians, in the same place pre-existed city with the name "Pallini", from which it took her ancient name entire the peninsula. Shortly Potidea was evolved in one of the more important cities of Chalkidiki. In the Persian wars initially it succumbed in their Perseus and accepted also this obligatory conscription with the remainder cities of Chalkidiki. Afterwards the naval battle of however Salamina exhausted and then it was the alone city of northern Greece that took part in the battle of Plataion. Thus is written and her name in cupreous tripods that were dedicated by the victors in the gods. The Perseus beseiged Potidea at their retirement from Greece, they could not however him occupy.  Herodotus reports details for the siege and his testimonies are precious for the study of topography of old city. Afterwards the Persian wars became member of Athenian Alliance and paid tax six talent by the year. Potidea existed one from the reasons of Peloponnisian war. Afterwards her apostasy from the alliance, the 431 b.C., Athenians fought against her and him beseiged for two years. The 429 it was forced to be delivered also the Potidaiates they were compelled they abandon the city taking with them only the clothes that they wore.  In this siege it took part and the known Athenian philosopher Socrates, which fought with big bravery, when was in danger the wounded in his battle student Alcebiades. It is reported also that the Socrates remained upright and motionless in the middle of Athenian camp for 24 hours, because him it occupied some philosophical problem. Afterwards the occupation of city, the Athenians installed their own settlers and thus Potidea from Corinthian were changed in Athenian colony. Then for one big interval it was field of competition between Athenians and Lacedaemonian, until, the 357 b.C., him besieged Philippos of Macedonia, which also, after him it occupied, was enslaved  her residents and delivered the city in the neighbouring Olynthious. The 316 b.C., king of Macedonia Kassandros, wanting he develops her strategic place, built new city above in the ruins, in which he assembled mainly Potideates and Olynthious. The new city was named Kassandria and shortly was evolved in one of the more important cities of Macedonia. 307 b.C., Dimitrios the Besieger manufactured in the ship yards 100 small boats and organised in the harbour big deposits for timber. In the years of Perseus, the last king of Macedonia (179-168 b.C.), existed in this guard from thousand pedestrian and two hundred horsemen. When it was beseiged by the Roman, it resisted vigorously, but it was forced it is delivered. With romans to government the Kassandria takes new blossoming. Around in the 43 b.C., very probably with indication of Vroutos, were installed many veteran and soldiers democratic in the city and were nominated "colony". It was one from the few Macedonian cities that cut currencies. The 269 a.C. it was besieged, as Thessaloniki, from their Goths, from that it was exempted after expedition what realised himself the emperor Klavdios. The 540 a.C. was destroyed by  Huns, but aljost immediately the Justinian it attended to reform her. The destruction however by  Huns appears that it was very big, because from then the Kassandria began to decline, until  the 14th century she was deserted anymore and the castle abandoning. In 1307 became the base of operations of Catalan. In 1407 the former emperor Ioannis Z' Palaioologos, governor of then Thessaloniki, in golden bull his prides for the repairs and improvements that he attended they become in the castle. As it becomes obvious, mission of castle of Kassandria is anymore fortification of peninsula, because the Kassandra with Kalamaria they are the feeders of Thessaloniki. For this after few years (1426) the Venetians that are anymore gentlemen of Thessaloniki and Kassandra, deal also these very seriously with the aid of castle. All the however efforts are condemned. Nothing cannot stop Turkish flood tile that crashes finally in 1430 and the castle of Kassandria. The name of city has been forgotten anymore and the region is named "Portes of Kassandras". Thus him said the inhabitants of Chalkidiki, until is founded Nea Potidea, and thus him says still the olds from the near old villages. In 1821 the castle has his last martial mission. In this they are fortified revolutionary habitants of Chalkidiki, him they repair, open again the ditch of Palaiologos and they fight hardly until November of same year, in order to follows remained in the historical memory of Chalkidiki with the frugal, but so much comprehensive word, "the Chaos".
THE SIGHTS:
-The ruins of castle: today are saved mainly departments from the fortification of neck of peninsula. That it remains however he is enough in order to us it shows the fortification system . It is a line walls, aljost straight line, length of roughly 1.200 metres, which at intervals is strengthened with square towers. His two utjost walls they advance in the Toronaios and Thermaikos gulf respectively and lead to towers in to the sea. Thus, when they closed his gates walls ("Portes", that are today not saved), was impossible the entry in the peninsula from the land. The fortification line and a big part from walls that is saved appear that it is work of Justinian and became afterwards the destruction of Kassandria from their Huns 540. Ioannis Palaiologos in 1407 it appears that strengthened the wall of Justinian and manufactured in the side of Thermaikos of gulf smaller triangular grounds, as citadel, by which it is saved today only the corner tower. In 1426 the Venetians strengthened more the fortifications. With the final predominance of Turks in 1430 the castle lost his strategic importance, was abandoned and slowly-slowly devastated. It was repaired off-handled by inhabitant of Halkidiki in 1821 and today is distinguished sporadic his ruins. The building material, with which it was built, emanates from the ancient and Roman city.
- The Canal: its dimensions are length 1.250m., width 40m., depth 8m., height of bridge 18m. We do not know when it opened for first time canal. The geographer Strabo (1st century after Christ) reports already her existence. It is not therefore improbable him opened the Kassandros, in order to it fortifies the city and in order to it facilitates the navigation. The next information that we have is in 1407, when him renewed Ioannis Palaiologos. In 1821 the rebels of  Halkidiki opened again the canal, thing that helped a lot their defence. The Turks in their final assault, so that they can cross, filled with parcels from fleece of sheeps. In 1930 were opened once again, but this time with different direction, that is to say from East to West, contrary to the ancient line that began from the North and making a semicircle to south-western it came out in the West. With the new mapping out was destroyed his department walls. At the duration of work the excavators removed the fleece that used the Turks in 1821.
Until 1967 the entry in the Kassandra became with the "raft", that is to say metal float that was drawn by a coast in the other with wipe rope. Around in 1970 became the big bridge that resolved the transport problem of Kassandria.
-The monument "Halasmou" in 1821: it is found southerly in the foresty hill, in Potidea.
-The country church of Archangel: is south-eastern found one kilometre of Potidea, left from the street to the Kassandra and in distance roughly 150 m. from this. it is the alone building that remained from the big monastery dependency of monastery Dohiariou of Mount Athos, that is to say monastery dependency of  Door. The monastery dependency was founded 1591, was destroyed in 1821 and was build again. The temple of Archagel was built in 1872 with building material of very old Potidea. In the northern wall it is build-in Latin tomp sign of sovereign of roman Kassandria.
-From the region of Potidea exist a lot of exhibits in the archaeological
museums of Poligiros and Thessaloniki (statues, bas-reliefs, vessels and precious jewels from the hellenistic graves)
-In the house of ancient Mr D. Psirouki from Potidea exists a interesting archaeological collection which contains mainly architectural members and tomb
monuments from marble.

 
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